Transparent Corp's Research Area is arguably the most comprehensive resource for collated brainwave entrainment research.   Update: the main research area on Transparent Corp's website is currently being updated, so it is offline.  However, you can still access their peer-reviewed research paper as a PDF here: “A Comprehensive Review of the Psychological Effects of Brainwave Entrainment“.
Passively listening to binaural beats may not spontaneously propel you into an altered state of consciousness. One's subjective experience in response to binaural-beat stimulation may also be influenced by a number of mediating factors. For example, the willingness and ability of the listener to relax and focus attention may contribute to binaural-beat effectiveness in inducing state changes. "Ultradian rhythms in the nervous system are characterized by periodic changes in arousal and states of consciousness (Rossi, 1986).
Why is exposure to these soundwaves helpful to sleep and relaxation? Science shows that exposure to binaural beats can create changes in the brain’s degree of arousal. Listening to these sounds that create a low-frequency tone, research indicates, triggers a slow-down to brainwave activity—and that may help you relax, lower your anxiety, and can make it easier for you to fall asleep and sleep more soundly.
I was not looking forward to returning back to my house as I live on my own so was very pleased to see that the “equisync” CDs had arrived in my absence. Ever since I have been back I put a CD on each evening and the change has been totally fantastic. The meditation is unbelievably calming and soothing, the inner-voice has been silenced and quite often I just put it on to drop off to sleep with the sound of gently falling rain. I can feel each day starting calmly and things like organising the memorial service have not been the strain and upset I would normally have expected. I could wax lyrical for hours because the benefits are truly and utterly fantastic. Never did I think I would find anything that would lift my spirits, clear my mind, calm the inner space but Equi-Sync has done that, and more.
The activity of neurons generate electric currents; and the synchronous action of neural ensembles in the cerebral cortex, comprising large numbers of neurons, produce macroscopic oscillations. These phenomena can be monitored and graphically documented by an electroencephalogram (EEG). The electroencephalographic representations of those oscillations are typically denoted by the term 'brainwaves' in common parlance.[4][5]
As we start to fall asleep, we naturally pass through the relaxed, drowsy alpha state, dropping into the sleep states of theta and delta. Dreaming occurs in the theta state, but most of the time when we’re asleep in the theta state, we are unconscious, and unable to consciously control the dreams we experience. When we begin to wake up, our dominant brainwaves pass into the lower alpha wavelengths, but usually as this happens, we wake up out of our dreams. The key to lucid dreaming is to approach the alpha wavelength, but, before you fully wake up, move back down into the dreaming theta state. This way, your subconscious begins to wake up enough for you to take control of your surroundings, but you’re still asleep enough that those surroundings are a wonderfully malleable dream instead of reality.
There has been considerable interest in the potential of auditory beat stimulation to affect cognition and mood states.  Chaieb, Wilpert, Reber, & Fell (2015) reviewed the literature on the effects of auditory beat stimulation on memory, creativity, attention, anxiety, mood, and vigilance. They found some support for it being able to affect these modalities but there were contradictory findings. So the area clearly requires significantly more research before firm conclusions can be drawn. 
Why is exposure to these soundwaves helpful to sleep and relaxation? Science shows that exposure to binaural beats can create changes in the brain’s degree of arousal. Listening to these sounds that create a low-frequency tone, research indicates, triggers a slow-down to brainwave activity—and that may help you relax, lower your anxiety, and can make it easier for you to fall asleep and sleep more soundly.
Thanks for the reply. I am now clearer on ‘what’ is heard. Can you expand or point me in direction ..a bit more about ‘pitch frequency’ and frequency spoken about and what exactly is the difference ..and how we use the higher pitch frequencies to ‘hear’ or become aware of them? Would you only pick up the low freq on a EEG?. sorry for being pedantic ..it still does not clear up split isochronics and possibly creating same situation as binaural beats..
While the physiological and psychological processes being uncovered by brain science in the study of brainwaves is sometimes complex and still being investigated, certain basic principles are well-established, easily understood, and helpful for achieving the most effectively use of brainwave entrainment when seeking relaxation, improved sleep, lowering of anxiety, or other goals. This important background information and scientific knowledge presented here includes: 

How does brainwave entrainment work? Consistent, precisely engineered audio frequencies in the form of binaural beats cause the brain’s frequencies to match the stimulus. Your brain perceives two beats with slightly different frequencies (which are inaudible to the ear) through your headphones. It takes the difference between the two, and matches its own frequency to it. This is called the “frequency following” response.
Entrainment is a physics principle in which one rhythmic system falls in synchrony with another rhythmic system. If you’ve ever found yourself moving your body to the beat of your favorite song, then you’ve experienced entrainment in its most basic form. Besides music, this principle can be found all around you, probably more than you realize. Here are a few examples:
There is also evidence to suggest meditation plays a protective role against the natural reduction in grey matter volume associated with aging. One study found evidence that Zen meditators experienced a slower age related decline rate for cerebral gray matter volume in the putamen which plays a role in learning, cognitive flexibility and attentional processing [14] This could suggest a better attentiveness in aging meditators versus non-meditators.
Entrainment is a physics principle in which one rhythmic system falls in synchrony with another rhythmic system. If you’ve ever found yourself moving your body to the beat of your favorite song, then you’ve experienced entrainment in its most basic form. Besides music, this principle can be found all around you, probably more than you realize. Here are a few examples:
“A quite different phenomenon results when stereophonic earphones are used and the signals are applied separately to each ear. Under the right circumstances beats can be perceived, but they are of an entirely different character. They are called binaural beats. . . . Binaural beats require the combined action of both ears. They exist as a consequence of the interaction of perceptions within the brain.”

Alpha (12hz – 8hz) – Awake, but deeply relaxed. Simply closing your eyes will produce alpha brainwaves. This category is associated with daydreaming, visualization, imagination, light meditation. Brainwave expert Anna Wise called the alpha range the bridge between beta and theta. (More information can be found in Wise’ book The High-Performance Mind)


When you listen to binaural beats/tones, you are actually listening to two slightly different pitched frequencies. Each frequency goes to each of your ears independently. When this happens your brain responds by creating a third tone, making up the difference between the two frequencies. This shift in frequency then shifts your brain’s consciousness and changes your state.
BrainwavePowerMusic has been the leaders of Lucid Dreaming, Astral Projection and Deep Sleep Music on Youtube for the last 5 years. The First Channel to focus on creating music specifically for dreaming and falling asleep. Unique music tracks dedicated to help you to fall asleep, getting a deep sleep that will leave you recharged and refreshed. Our astral and lucid dreaming tracks are all carefully formulated to make sure that you can achieve subconscious awareness and have helped millions of people to achieve a lucid dreaming state. Most of our sleep music mainly use Delta and Theta Waves. Mixing in soft instrumental music to help you achieve deep relaxation, and fall asleep fast. Our relaxing sleep music can be used as background music, meditation music, relaxation music, peaceful music and sleep music.

This is something which will come to you with practice. For instance you may feel an energy around and inside you like you have shifted dimensions but are still there. Instead of thinking this is God, the Zone or whatever, think of this as your soul, you essence, your expanded pure light being. In this way you will begin to train yourself to find your identity in your expanded being and your internal identity. This is what we want - to let go of the idea that we are a limited ego.
Once you have a good recording, start listening to your binaural beats while in bed, and try to be sure you’re undisturbed so your brain can sync up. If you have chronic insomnia, be sure to listen on a regular basis so you train yourself to fall asleep at the same time every night. If you like, you can even invest in a pair of comfortable sleep headphones.
There are many advantages and disadvantages with binaural beats. One of the major advantages is hemispheric synchronization. Since both hemispheres are required to create the beat within the brain, this method is an excellent way to create greater harmony between areas of the mind typically functioning independently. Binaural beats are also known to have effective hypnotic and relaxing effects.

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