But the notion of changing brain waves is a very appealing one, from a marketing stand point. People can visualize brain waves and we like synchrony. Also, in the computer age, we understand the notion of “programming.” We also have been prepped for the future by movies such as The Matrix, where people could master Kung Fu in minutes by simply “downloading” the knowledge. This gives the whole notion a superficial plausibility. But the science just isn’t there.
Listening to binaural beats is not something to be feared, however. In most situations, listening is safe and very enjoyable. Choosing a track from various websites online, as well as some videos on YouTube.com, can assist you in relaxing and can bring about a more restful sleep. Choosing a Beta entrainment can help with alertness and focus, while listening to an Alpha wave track can help you to relax and learn new information. Theta tracks can help to change some negative emotions, or to help you drift off to a sounder sleep. Delta waves will help to accelerate healing. To use them, you must use headphones or earphones, because each ear will hear a different frequency. You should make the commitment and listen daily; consistency is key in order to achieve maximum benefits. However, please don't listen to binaural beats twenty four hours a day; once daily for a short period of time is perfectly fine. You should also make yourself comfortable; either lying down or sitting in a comfortable chair will help you to relax. You can do them right before sleep, or right upon awakening. Listening during meditation or visualization exercises will help to improve and deepen your practice. If you feel a little blue or you need a break from the daily routine, you can pop a CD in and unplug completely. When you return to whatever you were doing, you will find that you are more refreshed and ready to take on whatever is before you.
Brainwave entrainment music can be used almost anywhere and anytime, making this mood and self-improvement method versatile and flexible enough to do at work, while traveling, or at other times during the day. When used in the workplace during short rest periods, brainwave entrainment techniques can enhance concentration, communication, and work productivity.
Binaural beats are considered auditory illusions. For a binaural beat to work, the two tones have to have frequencies less than 1000 Hz, and the difference between the two tones can’t be more than 30 Hz. The tones also have to be listened to separately, one through each ear. Binaural beats have been explored in music and are sometimes used to help tune instruments, such as pianos and organs. More recently, they have been connected to potential health benefits.
I just want to write another email about how happy I am with your product, Equisync I, or the alpha waves. I dont think I have ever been so relaxed in my entire life. When I get sink into the state, it feels like a huge electric blanket is pulsing through my body, a really warm, swirling feeling, and my mind is very inactive. I am a meditator without your product. I am able to enter witness consciousness fairly easy on my own sometimes during the day in activity. This isnt the heart oriented feeling of bliss or expansion, but it still is great for the body/mind. This is great though, as it seems to fully relax me. I still believe, that for one to really see dramatic results, meditation should be a way of life. Considering how many of us, spend most of our day unconscious, not aware of the witness or the self, an hour a day is better than nothing, but would be best to be proactive during the day, watching. Keep up the great work and thank you for your product and research.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is another highly utilized methodology for studying state changes in meditating brains. fMRI detects subtle increases in blood flow to areas of the brain with higher metabolic activity. Thus these areas of increased metabolic activity indicate which regions of the brain are currently being used to process whatever stimuli presented. Counter to EEG, the advantage of fMRI is its spatial resolution, with the ability to produce detailed spatial maps of brain activity. It suffers, however, in temporal resolution and cannot measure progressive activity, like the EEG, with much detail.
Until recent years, entering extraordinary states of heightened receptivity and peak performance has been attained predominantly by only a disciplined few, practicing ancient techniques such as meditation, chanting, yoga, and newly revamped versions of the mystical traditions - for example, progressive relaxation, auto-suggestion, hypnosis, and biofeedback. These techniques work. But they take long periods of practice, discipline, and sometimes a leap of faith. It is all too easy to become impatient and give up long before producing results.
A good recording will also not immediately start with tones that produce the theta range, but will begin higher up, in the beta range (which is associated with anxiety, but also active concentration and other waking states of being), and gradually move down, through the alpha range (which is the ideal meditative wavelength, but is also associated with falling asleep) before moving into the final, theta, range. If you get a binaural beat that goes directly into the theta range, you might find yourself distracted or unable to sync up as easily.
There’s a growing body of research suggesting that binaural beats can reduce different forms of anxiety, from mild to chronic. One especially interesting study looked at the effects of binaural beats on anxiety among patients preparing to undergo surgery—a life circumstance that is pretty anxiety provoking for most anyone. Over a period of six months, patients spent 30 minutes on the day of their surgery listening to binaural beats. Compared to patients who listened to a soundtrack that did not include binaural beats—and patients who received no “beats” therapy at all—the binaural beat listeners experienced significantly greater reductions in their anxiety levels.

This syncing of frequencies is a not a new phenomenon. In fact, it happens within our bodies every minute of every day. Slow down your breathing, for example, and your heart rate and brainwaves slow down to match. The reverse is also true, which means that by slowing down your brainwaves you can affect your heart rate and respiration, thereby inducing the perfect state for effective meditation[3].
What the Neuro Programmer does (as far as I can tell – access to much of the website requires the purchase of product) is present sound and visuals on the computer screen. The user is meant to passively view and listen to this while their brain is effortlessly programmed to solve whatever problem they are having or improve whatever performance they are interested in.

For example if you play a tone of 200hz in the left ear, and a tone of 190hz in the right ear (with the difference being 10hz) a beating tone will be perceived at 10 hz which is the binaural beat. What ever the difference is between the tones coming into the ears (in this example the difference is 200hz-190hz=10hz) the binaural beat will be that difference.
Theta brainwaves are next highest in frequency above delta and are especially important for many people using brainwave entrainment and meditation because theta waves are at a threshold, forming a link between wakefulness and the subconscious mind. Theta waves bridge between our awake self and the creative and insightful understandings from below our conscious awareness, and while they are not common in awake adults, they are normative for children under 13 years old. 

** DISCLAIMER: I’m not a doctor or a scientist, just a nerd who loves meditation and experimenting with new things. I test every binaural beat track on myself and make sure I'm happy with the result before I make it public. Ultimately, every person is going to have their own unique experience. Using this track is done at your own risk -- if you start to experience any negative effects, STOP using it!
“The great neuroscientist W. Gray Walter carried out a series of experiments in the late forties and fifties in which he used an electronic stroboscopic device in combination with EEG equipment to send rhythmic light flashes into the eyes of the subjects at frequencies ranging from ten to twenty five flashes per second. He was startled to find that the flickering seemed to alter the brain-wave activity of the whole cortex instead of just the areas associated with vision. Wrote Walter, “The rhythmic series of flashes appear to be breaking down some of the physiologic barriers between different regions of the brain. This means the stimulus of flicker received by the visual projection area of the cortex was breaking bounds— its ripples were overflowing into other areas.”
In addition to potentially boosting sleep-promoting hormones, binaural beats may also reduce our perceptions of pain. A 2017 study found binaural beats used in combination with visual stimulation led to reductions in patients’ perception of acute pain. Other recent research showed binaural beats helped improve pain perception in patients with chronic pain.
This phenomenon is best known in acoustics or music, though it can be found in any linear system: "According to the law of superposition, two tones sounding simultaneously are superimposed in a very simple way: one adds their amplitudes".[2] If a graph is drawn to show the function corresponding to the total sound of two strings, it can be seen that maxima and minima are no longer constant as when a pure note is played, but change over time: when the two waves are nearly 180 degrees out of phase the maxima of one wave cancel the minima of the other, whereas when they are nearly in phase their maxima sum up, raising the perceived volume.

The name of the game (and by game, we mean mind hack) is binaural beats. Binaural beats refer to the event in which two similar — but not identical — frequencies are played in different ears through headphones. For example, you might have a 300 Hz tone playing into your left ear, and a 305 Hz tone playing into your right ear (hence the need for headphones, since it’s important for the different sounds to be heard in isolation). Your brain will hear those two tones, yes, but what it will also pick up a 5 Hz tone – the difference between the two frequencies – which is actually too low for our ears to hear. So what’s happening here is not that your ears are suddenly picking up a tone that they couldn’t prior, but instead, your brain is producing the tone; you are perceiving it, not actually hearing it. The resulting noise that you will hear is a steady rhythm, about 4.5 beats per second. Your brain, in the process, will actually emit brainwaves at the frequency of the synthesized tone.


In one study, researchers had a group of participants relax alone in a quiet, low-light environment following an exercise session. They split the group in two — one spent 20 minutes listening to theta-frequency binaural beats while the other listened to a carrier tone and monitored their parasympathetic (rest and relaxation) and sympathetic (fight or flight) nervous system activity. Researchers found the group that listened to binaural beats experienced an increase in parasympathetic activity and a decrease in sympathetic activity, along with higher rates of self-reported relaxation.
Binaural beats work by playing a different tone in each ear, and in the process the brain creates a “phantom tone” which is the difference between the two tones (for example if you play a 300 hz tone in one ear and a 310 hz in the other ear the brain will produce a 10 Hz phantom tone.) If this phantom tone is 10 hz the brain will gradually be led to a dominant brainwave frequency of 10 hz (this has been measured by EEG devices). If the tone is 7 hz the brain will gradually be led to a 7 hz dominant frequency, and so on.
I like it. I like the fact that I can just sit there and observe my thoughts and feelings and then go back to watching my breathing. It really does teach me to be centered and balanced. I look forward to the next several weeks. By the way, what I am doing now is meditating for 23 minutes in the early morning and again 23 minutes in the early evening. I’ll check back with you.

Joe:             The Journey  soundscape took a lot of work. I wanted to bring in the very best of what I knew about brainwave entrainment and to make the best brainwave entrainment product—with the best entrainment technology—that I possibly could. So, there are all sorts of things going on in Journey  to provide a sound bed to support the experience of expansiveness and also communicate elements of the heart-based work I talked about earlier. (See part I of this interview, A Guide to Transpersonal Meditation.)


Delta brainwaves are slow, loud brainwaves (low frequency and deeply penetrating, like a drum beat). They are generated in deepest meditation and dreamless sleep. Delta waves suspend external awareness and are the source of empathy. Healing and regeneration are stimulated in this state, and that is why deep restorative sleep is so essential to the healing process.
Really great stuff here, man. Well done! Without taking anything away from the article it would have been great to have under one “roof” similar information about hypnotherapy and subliminals. I invested quite a lot in buying binaural cd’s but after reading your material I think that for short term effects isochronic tones rather than binaurals are the technology to go for now. For longer lasting and possibly permanent effects I’m not sure whether I should go for hypnosis or subliminals (or both). An article as well written and comprehensive as yours but focusing on hypnosis vs subliminals would have completed the circle for me. The stuff I’ve read so far on binaurals vs isochronics hasn’t really done it for me. Any chance you could give it a shot?
Transparent Corp's Research Area is arguably the most comprehensive resource for collated brainwave entrainment research.   Update: the main research area on Transparent Corp's website is currently being updated, so it is offline.  However, you can still access their peer-reviewed research paper as a PDF here: “A Comprehensive Review of the Psychological Effects of Brainwave Entrainment“.
The I-Doser claims it can emulate prescription drug-like effects by listening to MP3's, to get stoned.[1] This is largely a moral panic by parents who flunked science fueled by the eternal quest by teenagers to get stoned, and stupid ones convincing their friends it works. It is really more of wishful thinking and making yourself disoriented by playing discordant sounds really damn loud. If you want to experience it yourself, you can always listen to Bjork Captain Beefheart dubstep.
The research may represent the bravest frontier of brain research. But depending on your religious beliefs, it may also be the last straw. For while Newberg and other scientists say they are trying to bridge the gap between science and religion, many believers are offended by the notion that God is a creation of the human brain, rather than the other way around. "It reinforces atheistic assumptions and makes religion appear useless," said Nancey Murphy, a professor of Christian philosophy at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, Calif. "If you can explain religious experience purely as a brain phenomenon, you don't need the assumption of the existence of God."
Subsequently, the term 'entrainment' has been used to describe a shared tendency of many physical and biological systems to synchronize their periodicity and rhythm through interaction. This tendency has been identified as specifically pertinent to the study of sound and music generally, and acoustic rhythms specifically. The most ubiquitous and familiar examples of neuromotor entrainment to acoustic stimuli is observable in spontaneous foot or finger tapping to the rhythmic beat of a song.

Over the long term, traditional eastern methods (such as meditation and yoga) train your brainwaves into balance. Of the newer methods, brainwave entrainment is an easy, low-cost method to temporarily alter your brainwave state. If you are trying to solve a particular difficulty or fine-tune your brainwave function, state-of-the-art brain training methods like neurofeedback and pEMF deliver targeted, quick, and lasting results.  


One larger and more recent randomized and controlled trial looked at the use of binaural beats in 291 patients admitted to the emergency department at a hospital. The researchers observed significant decreases in anxiety levels in patients exposed to audio with embedded binaural beats compared to those who listened to audio without binaural beats or no audio at all (headphones only).
Similar results have been achieved with the use of music alone, the most famous example being the so-called Mozart effect. In his book "Pourqui Mozart?" Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis claims that the composer’s music promoted healing and brain development[1]. The idea has been further popularized by Don Campbell in his book "The Mozart Effect", which claims that listening to Mozart can temporarily boost a person’s scores on portions of an IQ test [2].
Binaural beats require two separate tones from two sources that are combined inside the listener’s brain to form the target tone. The lower frequency sound is called the carrier tone, and it is combined with a higher frequency sound known as the offset tone. Because of this, binaural beats must be listened to with stereo headphones or the effect is lost. Binaural beats create a hypnotic effect, but they are not the most effective tool for brainwave entrainment, and binaural beats are often ineffective for people with hearing loss.

By the end of just a few short days (3 or 4 of use), my constant “on edge” feeling completely dissipated. I had changed my lifestyle drastically to a very low-stress environment. All feelings of anxiety disappeared rapidly, but I was still experiencing something “physical.” I had trouble explaining it to anyone. I lashed out immediately at the slightest frustration. I tried to explain to those around me that it was something physically happening in my brain, but they were skeptical. Within less than a week of using the EOC cd’s, I noticed my tolerance level for dealing with people and situations had increased tremendously.
One problem with researching binaural beats is that listening to them does not guarantee brain entrainment. Although a determined listener should be able to focus on the beats enough to relax and let his or her brain match the binaural beat wavelength, sometimes, and for some people, it just won’t happen.  Also, some claims, such as astral travel, are not scientifically measurable at this time, and so are unverifiable in scientific studies. However, there are several studies that suggest that a meditative state is more easily attained when listening to binaural beats, suggesting that other such states may well be acheiveable too.
The brain state changes found in meditators are almost exclusively found in higher-order executive and association cortices.[13] This supports the notion that meditation increases self-regulation and attentiveness. Recent studies have also investigated how these changes may alter the functionality and connectivity of the default mode network, which is a hypothesized network of brain regions that are active when an individual is engaged in internal tasks such as daydreaming.[17]

I just wanted to thank you guys for having such an outstanding product available. I used to meditate when I was younger but got away from it over the last 7-8 years. I had difficulty starting back up, but since I started using your cds I have no difficulties getting back into it; and am now meditating 2 hours per day and have never felt better. I have only been using them for a couple weeks but have already noticed a difference. Thanks again for creating such a wonderful product and I will be sure to recommend it to everyone.

The functional role of neural oscillations is still not fully understood;[6] however they have been shown to correlate with emotional responses, motor control, and a number of cognitive functions including information transfer, perception, and memory.[7][8][9] Specifically, neural oscillations, in particular theta activity, are extensively linked to memory function, and coupling between theta and gamma activity is considered to be vital for memory functions, including episodic memory.[10][11][12]
So does that mean that there are certain types of brainwaves that are better? The short answer to that question is that each brainwave has a different function. During the day, you might want to produce a certain kind of brainwave more frequently or during different times and activities. That requires a certain amount of control, flexibility, and resilience.
Have you ever had a dream where you realized you were dreaming and then suddenly could control the dream? Many of us have had this experience… once or twice. The rest of us have heard about it and wished we could do it ourselves. It’s called lucid dreaming, and it can be an incredibly rewarding experience, especially if you can enter that state at willdo it more than just the rare time or two. But lucid dreaming on a regular basis is something very few of us can do… on our own.
BrainwavePowerMusic has been the leaders of Lucid Dreaming, Astral Projection and Deep Sleep Music on Youtube for the last 5 years. The First Channel to focus on creating music specifically for dreaming and falling asleep. Unique music tracks dedicated to help you to fall asleep, getting a deep sleep that will leave you recharged and refreshed. Our astral and lucid dreaming tracks are all carefully formulated to make sure that you can achieve subconscious awareness and have helped millions of people to achieve a lucid dreaming state. Most of our sleep music mainly use Delta and Theta Waves. Mixing in soft instrumental music to help you achieve deep relaxation, and fall asleep fast. Our relaxing sleep music can be used as background music, meditation music, relaxation music, peaceful music and sleep music.
Controversies concerning the brain, mind, and consciousness have existed since the early Greek philosophers argued about the nature of the mind-body relationship, and none of these disputes has been resolved. Modern neurologists have located the mind in the brain and have said that consciousness is the result of electrochemical neurological activity. There are, however, growing observations to the contrary. There is no neuro-physiological research which conclusively shows that the higher levels of mind (intuition, insight, creativity, imagination, understanding, thought, reasoning, intent, decision, knowing, will, spirit, or soul) are located in brain tissue (Hunt, 1995). A resolution to the controversies surrounding the higher mind and consciousness and the mind-body problem in general may need to involve an epistemological shift to include extra-rational ways of knowing (de Quincey, 1994) and cannot be comprehended by neuro-chemical brain studies alone. We are in the midst of a revolution focusing on the study of consciousness (Owens, 1995). Penfield, an eminent contemporary neurophysiologist, found that the human mind continued to work in spite of the brain's reduced activity under anesthesia. Brain waves were nearly absent while the mind was just as active as in the waking state. The only difference was in the content of the conscious experience. Following Penfield's work, other researchers have reported awareness in comatose patients (Hunt, 1995) and there is a growing body of evidence which suggests that reduced cortical arousal while maintaining conscious awareness is possible (Fischer, 1971;West 1980; Delmonte, 1984; Goleman 1988; Jevning, Wallace, & Beidenbach, 1992; Wallace, 1986; Mavromatis, 1991). These states are variously referred to as meditative, trance, altered, hypnogogic, hypnotic, and twilight-learning states (Budzynski, 1986). Broadly defined, the various forms of altered states rest on the maintenance of conscious awareness in a physiologically reduced state of arousal marked by parasympathetic dominance (Mavromatis, 1991). Recent physiological studies of highly hypnotizable subjects and adept meditators indicate that maintaining awareness with reduced cortical arousal is indeed possible in selected individuals as a natural ability or as an acquired skill (Sabourin, Cutcomb, Crawford, & Pribram, 1993). More and more scientists are expressing doubts about the neurologists' brain-mind model because it fails to answer so many questions about our ordinary experiences, as well as evading our mystical and spiritual ones. The scientific evidence supporting the phenomenon of remote viewing alone is sufficient to show that mind-consciousness is not a local phenomenon (McMoneagle, 1993).  
Further research in the mid-1990s examined claims that binaural beats can provide the listener with an experience akin to that of taking recreational drugs, stop them from smoking, help them lose weight, and other similar claims (often referred to under the umbrella term “brainwave entertainment”). Unfortunately, at this time, science has not been able to definitively prove that these claims are true, although there is, in some cases, powerful anecdotal evidence suggesting that for some individuals, these beneficial effects are very much a reality.

Other entrainment methods sometimes used include autopan modulation that moves sound in an 180º arc to create a desired tone. Harmonic box entrainment, invented by James Mann, uses a layering of binaural and monaural tones that alternate between ears, requiring headphones. Sound modulation and filtering, amplitude modulation, and pitch panning use diverse sounds to create rhythmic pulses matched to the desired brainwave frequency. 
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Are you someone who has turned to meditation or yoga as a way of relieving stress and improving your overall well-being? Yoga and meditation are time-proven methods, used for centuries, which restore mental, physical, and spiritual balance in people’s lives, and brainwave entrainment can be used in conjunction with these practices for even deeper levels of benefit. 
People who meditate grow bigger brains than those who don't. Researchers at Harvard, Yale, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found the first evidence that meditation can alter the physical structure of our brains. Brain scans they conducted reveal that experienced meditators boasted increased thickness in parts of the brain that deal with attention and processing sensory input.
There are five main categories of brainwave frequencies: Gamma (40Hz+), Beta (13 – 40Hz), Alpha (7 – 13Hz), Theta (4 – 7Hz), and Delta (<4Hz). Each category is associated with a different state of mind; so, for example, when you’re in a peak state of performance, your brain produces Alpha Waves, and when you’re in a deep sleep, your brain produces Delta Waves.

Neural oscillations are rhythmic or repetitive electrochemical activity in the brain and central nervous system. Such oscillations can be characterized by their frequency, amplitude and phase. Neural tissue can generate oscillatory activity driven by mechanisms within individual neurons, as well as by interactions between them. They may also adjust frequency to synchronize with the periodic vibration of external acoustic or visual stimuli.[3]
it says the following: “Running a delta sleep session throughout the night is not recommended as it can interrupt the normal sleep cycle”. I’ve been looping pure delta isochronic tones for about 5 days now, and have had quality sleep. Should I continue looping delta or should I let the videos play out without looping them? Will it will harm my health to do loop delta while I sleep?
I just had to let you folks know how impressed I am with your Equisync CD’s, (Equisync I, Equisync II, & Equisync III). I just received the last two yesterday. I tried them both with amazing results. Especially the final CD, Equisync III. It creates a tone that is like a plane of sound that exists between the eyes all the way through your brain to the back of your head in the center. It is a tone, that if concentrated on purely, is the most amazing thing I have ever felt. I firmly believe it is some kind of door the the other side. It is like walking into a Lucid Dream. I am amazed many do not or know not about your technology and it’s wealth and value in understanding the self as well as our place in the Cosmos. I have recommended your product to others and will continue to do so. It is the first product, that has literally blown me away, and without the usual hype of products, such as these. It is it’s pureness, and it’s simplicity, that enables one to help oneself and others in this life. Using the CDs, at least initially, as almost entirely eradicated the intense pain I have felt for years. I have many forms of arthritis, all of which are degenerative, and incredibly intense. I have been able to work in my garden almost all day, without the usual restriction of pain and fatigue. I truly applaud you folks, you are definitely a Godsend….
Thanks for the reply. I am now clearer on ‘what’ is heard. Can you expand or point me in direction ..a bit more about ‘pitch frequency’ and frequency spoken about and what exactly is the difference ..and how we use the higher pitch frequencies to ‘hear’ or become aware of them? Would you only pick up the low freq on a EEG?. sorry for being pedantic ..it still does not clear up split isochronics and possibly creating same situation as binaural beats..
Alpha: Alpha brainwave patterns are associated with a state of wakeful relaxation. Slower and lower in frequency (between 9-14 hertz), alpha waves are dominant when we’re calm and relaxed, but still alert. Alpha waves are associated with states of meditation (your yoga class probably puts you in an alpha state), and also with our ability to be creative.

This incredible app which you  not only has over 3 hours of meditations valued at $200, the technology utilized is unlike anything else on the marketplace. The heartbeat synchronization augmentation gives you a completely immersive experiencing, tuning in to your body’s natural rhythms. It gives you the best binaural music on the market. Fully customizable, you can base your meditation on your mood, goals and timeframe. This is the perfect app for a deep, introspective experience.
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