A popular opinion in the brainwave entrainment community is that listening to isochronic tones without music produces a much stronger effect.  However, in the study by Doherty, Cormac. “A comparison of alpha brainwave entrainment, with and without musical accompaniment” (2014),  it was concluded that brainwave entrainment was equally effective for isochronic tones, both with and without music.
But the notion of changing brain waves is a very appealing one, from a marketing stand point. People can visualize brain waves and we like synchrony. Also, in the computer age, we understand the notion of “programming.” We also have been prepped for the future by movies such as The Matrix, where people could master Kung Fu in minutes by simply “downloading” the knowledge. This gives the whole notion a superficial plausibility. But the science just isn’t there.
Brain Wave Entrainment is any procedure that causes one's brainwave frequencies to synchronize with a periodic stimulus (sound, vibration or light) having a frequency corresponding to the intended brain-state (for example, to induce a trance, dreams, sleep or relaxation.) It is also called the Flicker-response because of how staring at a campfire or the flickering of a burning candle can lull you into a state of calmness and serenity. There was an extensive article on this phenomenon by Gerard Oster in Scientific American in 1973. It may sound novel, but in many ways, this is old tech.
The brain will entrain to the strongest stimulus. If you combine binaural beats with isochronic tones, your brainwaves will entrain to the isochronic tones. If anything, when you combine the two I believe it makes the track less effective because it makes it harder for the brain to decipher between the two and synchronise to a single beat. There are lots of websites with compelling marketing about the benefits of combining the two together in some funky way, but I haven’t seen any research or lots of anecdotal feedback even to suggest it’s effective to combine them.
♥ I've suffered from patches of insomnia throughout my life, extending from a few days to dragging on for several weeks, and no amount of the usual proper "bedtime ritual" normally recommended, calms me, as my brain is overactive. Layering combos of the Binaural/Bilateral sounds right before sleep effectively resets me, allowing me to sleep like a normal human. I can't express enough gratitude!

When two pure tones of slightly different frequencies are delivered simultaneously to the two ears, is generated a beat whose frequency corresponds to the frequency difference between them. That beat is known as acoustic beat. If these two tones are presented one to each ear, they still produce the sensation of the same beat, although no physical combination of the tones occurs outside the... [Show full abstract]
Transparent Corp's Research Area is arguably the most comprehensive resource for collated brainwave entrainment research.   Update: the main research area on Transparent Corp's website is currently being updated, so it is offline.  However, you can still access their peer-reviewed research paper as a PDF here: “A Comprehensive Review of the Psychological Effects of Brainwave Entrainment“.
Despite the lack of solid evidence of the effectiveness of binaural beats in producing brainwave changes, and that those changes can be effective in altering our conscious states, there do exist hours of recorded binaural beat videos available on YouTube. Some of these are just straight beats designed to ease the listener into various states by gradually varying the frequencies of the beats. A nice example of this can be found in a 90-minute video by Jody Hatton. Others embed the beats into a musical score, which some people find easier to listen to. Spotify has a whole playlist devoted to binaural beats. You can try these and many others to see if this is something that may be helpful to you. The soothing nature of the sounds may be what really helps, but that’s fine if you just want to relax and drift off to sleep. You can also find quite a few apps that generate binaural beats at your phone’s app store. If you want to relax and sleep just be sure to set the frequency in the theta range (4 – 7 Hz). Patients have reported to me that they felt energized or even anxious after listening to a few minutes of the beats, but this was usually because they were set to a high frequency like beta (13 – 16 Hz). Be sure to try listening to the beats for a short time and if they have a negative effect, just stop listening. If you find them helpful, that’s great, and you have a new technique that can be used to promote relaxation, something most of us can use. 
Anapanasati (Buddhist breathing meditation) Buddhist meditation Christian meditation Taoist meditation Dancemeditation Dhyāna (Buddhist meditation) Dhyāna (Hindu meditation) Islamic meditation Jain meditation Jewish meditation Muraqabah (Sufi meditation) New Age meditation Naam Japo (Sikism meditation) Neigong Pranayama (yoga breathing practice) Qigong Shikantaza (Zen Buddhist seated meditation) Silva Method Tantra Transcendental meditation (TM) Vipassanā (Silent meditation) Yoga Zazen (Zen Buddhist seated meditation) Zhan zhuang (Qigong standing meditation) 5Rhythms

Many studies on mindfulness meditation, assessed in a review by Cahn and Polich in 2006, have linked lower frequency alpha waves, as well as theta waves, to meditation.[4] Much older studies report more specific findings, such as decreased alpha blocking and increased frontal lobe specific theta activity.[5] Alpha blocking is a phenomenon where the active brain, normally presenting beta wave activity, cannot as easily switch to alpha wave activity often involved in memory recall. These findings would suggest that in a meditative state a person is more relaxed but maintains a sharp awareness. Two large, recent comprehensive review works, however, point to poor control and statistical analyses in these early studies and comment that it can only be said with confidence that increased alpha and theta wave activity exists.[4][6]

In one study, researchers had a group of participants relax alone in a quiet, low-light environment following an exercise session. They split the group in two — one spent 20 minutes listening to theta-frequency binaural beats while the other listened to a carrier tone and monitored their parasympathetic (rest and relaxation) and sympathetic (fight or flight) nervous system activity. Researchers found the group that listened to binaural beats experienced an increase in parasympathetic activity and a decrease in sympathetic activity, along with higher rates of self-reported relaxation.


The following is an example of binaural beats incorporated into an actual piece of music and had even made the headlines as “the most relaxing song ever”. The song is called “Weightless” and is composed by the band Marconi Union, reportedly in collaboration with sound therapists. The official explanation is that the track would start on 60 beats per minute and slowly but surely slow it down to 50.
The Neuro Programmer website, as is typical, is full of testimonials and vague references to research. I tried to track down the research they referenced, but could not find anything published or peer-reviewed by the authors named or on the subjects indicated. For example, they cite one study by Thomas Budzynski, but the only thing published by him that is listed on Pub Med is a small study on biofeedback published in 1969. The 1999 study they reference is not listed. Also – Budzynski has connections to another company – Theta Technologies – which sells similar technology.  (The exact nature of his connection is not clear, he was at least a consultant. He is also listed as the director of research for another company, Synchromed, LLC.)  This looks like just another in-house worthless study to support the marketing of a product.
A study published in Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology by Paul Williams and Michael West in 1975 examined the brainwave states of people experienced in meditation while using photic stimulation, and another study by Leonard, Telch, and Harrington in 1999 examined the successful use of brainwave entrainment techniques for attaining meditative states in subjects.
By the 1980s, entrainment technology had merged with advancements in microelectronics technology, making it possible to develop even more sophisticated audio and visual brainwave entrainment products for the marketplace. In the last two decades, a number of scientific studies have reported brainwave entrainment as an effective remedy for ADD, academic learning problems, and improving memory and cognition.
There isn’t really a one-size-fits-all track or frequency range which is right for all kids while doing homework. So that does make it difficult to recommend one thing in particular, and why I have a number of tracks for studying and focus. If they have already learnt and understood the information, but are just trying to commit it to memory for a test, then I would recommend an alpha track, like the Memorization Study Aid product I have with the 10.4Hz frequency you referred to. If they are still trying to fully understand what is being taught in a workbook, then I would recommend a track that is mainly beta frequencies, like my Study Focus tracks. In the middle, I have a number of tracks which use a combination of beta and alpha wave frequencies, like Study Booster, Study Enhancer and Cognition Enhancer. The last 3 use similar frequencies but deliver the tones and brainwave entrainment effects in different ways. As we are all wired a little differently it does sometimes take a bit of trial and error, to see what method or frequency range works best for the individual. These types of tracks are made for a general audience. In an ideal world, you would hook up to an EEG and see in real time exactly what a person responds to best, depending on the goal and current state of mind.
... The goal of the study was to observe the effect of exposure to BB on working memory capacity. As suggested by many studies, BBs corresponding to alpha brain waves can positively influence cognitive processing, namely attention, auditory sequential memory, working memory, working memory storage, and reasoning ability (Carter & Russell, 1993;Cruceanu & Rotarescu, 2013;Foster, 1990;Kennerly, 1994;McMurray, 2006). The results show that a BB of the frequency of 9.55 Hz – which is a representation of the alpha frequency range of the brain activity – had a temporary positive effect on working memory capacity in our sample of healthy, adult university students. ...
I was not looking forward to returning back to my house as I live on my own so was very pleased to see that the “equisync” CDs had arrived in my absence. Ever since I have been back I put a CD on each evening and the change has been totally fantastic. The meditation is unbelievably calming and soothing, the inner-voice has been silenced and quite often I just put it on to drop off to sleep with the sound of gently falling rain. I can feel each day starting calmly and things like organising the memorial service have not been the strain and upset I would normally have expected. I could wax lyrical for hours because the benefits are truly and utterly fantastic. Never did I think I would find anything that would lift my spirits, clear my mind, calm the inner space but Equi-Sync has done that, and more.
Your brain cells reset their sodium & potassium ratios when the brain is in Theta state. The sodium & potassium levels are involved in osmosis which is the chemical process that transports chemicals into and out of your brain cells. After an extended period in the Beta state the ratio between potassium and sodium is out of balance. This the main cause of what is known as "mental fatigue". A brief period in Theta (about 5 - 15min) can restore the ratio to normal resulting in mental refreshment.  

Controlled or pre/post studies of the effects of BWE using auditory or visual stimulation were eligible for inclusion, provided pulses of light or tone were delivered at frequencies hypothesised to have a beneficial effect or in line with a protocol addressing clinical outcomes. Studies were required to report clinical or psychological outcomes (measured using standard methods or as deemed appropriate by peer review) and to report statistical analysis. Studies of outcomes such as electroencephalogram (EEG) response or neurotransmitter levels were not eligible. Case studies were excluded.

Hi Jason, thanks for all the uploads to youtube. I’ve been using them in work recently to help me concentrate and relax. I like the music tracks that you’ve chosen to overlay the tones. A couple of times in the last 2 weeks I’ve experienced the wavy pulse like sound, similar to the tones in my left ear. I wasn’t listening to tracks at the time or that day. It doesn’t last but it feels a bit strange. I wondered if I might have been listening to the tracks too loudly and that it was almost like a type of tinnitus. I’m curious to know if anyone has been in touch with you in the past to say they’ve had a similar experience?
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From a brainwave entrainment effectiveness perspective, it’s my understanding that the response from isochronic tones stimulation starts to diminish over 30Hz and that 40Hz is about the limit for using them. So from what I’ve read on the topic a 100Hz beat wouldn’t work, probably because it’s too fast for the brain to process and synchronise with it.
A newer alternative to binaural beats is isochromatic tones. These are tones that are interspersed with periods of brief silence, creating a similar effect to binaural beats but without the two frequencies playing in different ears. Because isochromatic tones do not need headphones, they are gaining popularity as the newest method of brainwave entertainment.

EquiSync’s design is based on the 100’s of studies performed on the effectiveness of brainwave entrainment technology, and 1000’s of studies on the powerful benefits of meditation. If you are interested in better understanding the power of this technology and rapidly expanding field of research, then here is a very abbreviated bibliography, a very small sample of the studies out there:
I appreciate your compliment on my article Henry. I’ve been using and reading up on isochronic tones and brainwave entrainment for many years, so it was just a case of trying to put a lot of what I’ve learnt into one article. I don’t have a great deal of knowledge or experience in using hypnosis and subliminals, so I’m afraid I wouldn’t be in a position to create something so extensive in reviewing them.
... [9] While entrainment by binaural auditory beats in the alpha frequency has also been shown to enhance creativity, cognition, memory, and an improvement in intelligence tests and achievement tests in learning disabled boys. [10][11][12][13] The gamma-band activity has been shown to involve in a variety of functions such as attention, memory, and consciousness. Current literature suggests that entrainment by gamma beats promotes cognitive flexibility, modulates visual attention, and enhances creativity. ...
Hello Jason, this is an unusually thoughtful discussion. Thank you for all your expertise and your kind manner of presenting and moderating it. I’m wondering if you have any experience with this: ever since I’ve been exposed to theta wave music, without headphones, I have found it irritating. And this is in spite of the fact that when I was first handed a CD by someone I knew well and trusted he was so confident I’d love it It didn’t occur to either of us that I might not. This happened again recently, which is about 10 years later, when I heard it playing overhead at an acupuncture clinic. I felt restless and even irritated, unable to zone out, which is unusual for me, during the treatment. I realized that the quality of my irritation was similar to what I’d felt listening to that CD a decade ago.So I asked if it was theta wave music and she said yes. The acupuncturist said that some people, but a vast minority, really dislike the music. She said that the few people who dislike it are not simply neutral, but actively dislike it. And she also said, but most people like it a lot. I’m just wondering what kind of factors might be present that would make a person feel so irritated by this music?
If you name your emotions, you can tame them, according to new research that suggests why meditation works. Brain scans show that putting negative emotions into words calms the brain's emotion center. That could explain meditationÕs purported emotional benefits, because people who meditate often label their negative emotions in an effort to let them go.

Meditation and its effect on brain activity and the central nervous system became a focus of collaborative research in neuroscience, psychology and neurobiology during the latter half of the 20th century. Research on meditation sought to define and characterize various practices. Meditation’s effect on the brain can be broken up into two categories: state changes and trait changes, respectively alterations in brain activities during the act of meditating and changes that are the outcome of long-term practice.
Chant in a monotone, enunciating clearly and moving the mouth in a very pronounced way. (exaggerate the lip movements) Pump the navel point with each part of the mantra. (Pull the navel point toward the spine.) Once I have perfected the above I like to add a slight root lock with the pumping of the navel center, which further stimulates the fire in my spine.
Alpha: Alpha brainwave patterns are associated with a state of wakeful relaxation. Slower and lower in frequency (between 9-14 hertz), alpha waves are dominant when we’re calm and relaxed, but still alert. Alpha waves are associated with states of meditation (your yoga class probably puts you in an alpha state), and also with our ability to be creative.

The same can be applied to the auditory senses, instead of the visual. Think of when you walk around the city with a friend or relative, have you ever noticed that your steps end up synchronized? Or when you walk with music which just happens to have a walkable tempo, before you know it you’re walking to the beat! This is how some insomniacs get treated. Binaural beats or brainwave entrainment aims to naturally help you synchronize yourself to a desired state of mind.

Newberg won't go so far, but other proponents of the new brain science do. Michael Persinger, a professor of neuroscience at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, has been conducting experiments that fit a set of magnets to a helmet-like device. Persinger runs what amounts to a weak electromagnetic signal around the skulls of volunteers. Four in five people, he said, report a "mystical experience, the feeling that there is a sentient being or entity standing behind or near" them. Some weep, some feel God has touched them, others become frightened and talk of demons and evil spirits. "That's in the laboratory," said Persinger. "They know they are in the laboratory. Can you imagine what would happen if that happened late at night in a pew or mosque or synagogue?" His research, said Persinger, showed that "religion is a property of the brain, only the brain and has little to do with what's out there." Those who believe the new science disproves the existence of God say they are holding up a mirror to society about the destructive power of religion. They say that religious wars, fanaticism and intolerance spring from dogmatic beliefs that particular gods and faiths are unique, rather than facets of universal brain chemistry.

The main point is, you can be asleep while listening to any of them, but you won't be awake to feel anything. If you fall asleep while a beta binaural beat is playing, you may start to get anxious and start sleeping restlessly, you may even have a bad dream. This is because too much use of the higher beta range is associated with anxiety and stress, it's the “fight or flight” response you will experience.
In the 1980s, a researcher in Japan, Tsuyoshi Inouye described how light stimulation creates synchronization of brain hemispheres. Since then, other researchers have detailed the positive effects of hemispheric synchronization including a 1984 study by researcher Dr. Gene W. Brockopp stating that hemispheric synchronization resulted in improved intellectual functioning as well as improvements in long-term memory, and these effects are cumulative over time.
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Cortisol is an arousal hormone, stimulating alertness and attention. Cortisol levels rise and fall in connection to circadian rhythms—cortisol levels rise to their peak levels first thing in the morning, just in time for you to be active for the day. Too-high cortisol levels are associated with insomnia, as well as more time spent in light sleep, rather than deep sleep.
Did you ever wonder why someone who "has everything" could be depressed and unhappy and why someone who has very little can be so happy? Of course, we can answer that material wealth, beauty, situation, good environments aren't everything. (Sure are nice though :+)) But that explanation ends up seeming like a rationalization and not an explanation. Consider the idea that the answer could reside in our brainwaves. Certain brain frequencies promote a feeling of well being and certain frequencies promote a feeling of depression. The state of our brainwaves also influences our tendency to be overly reactive or detached.
Rudy's primary work is on Alzheimer's. In this disease, beta amyloid proteins form plaques in the brain and kill nerve cells eventually leading to dementia. Research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis shows that when people's brains are in a Delta brain wave state, beta amyloid production in the brain ceases and the toxic material is cleared away. One thought is to explore the possibility of using brain entrainment technology to help treat Alzheimer's, but at this point all it is being used for is to help people meditate, relax and dream instantly and effortlessly.
E I slept n cy time u attempted it I had the worst feeling ever my brain was so so heavy had a serious gravitational pulling to the ground and terrible twisting and painful movements in my head they b come u bearable I do t know what’s wrong my body seems to want to stay in a weird relcexd kind of state where I just want to stay in that state all the time I feel like a paralysis my whole body is weighted numb and dead I stopped all meds but it still happening nobody knows anything about this music nobody believe it’s cause ld me problems I am really u happy my life is a mess my head feels so so heavy and weighted I can’t hold it up I had a neck injury a while before I had listened to the music I been every where I seen all doctors had mri nobody can help me I do t know wats caused this my body and head does not want to co e out this state I can’t live this way please can u help me is the bi aural beats to blame I just do t know it seems
There are five main categories of brainwave frequencies: Gamma (40Hz+), Beta (13 – 40Hz), Alpha (7 – 13Hz), Theta (4 – 7Hz), and Delta (<4Hz). Each category is associated with a different state of mind; so, for example, when you’re in a peak state of performance, your brain produces Alpha Waves, and when you’re in a deep sleep, your brain produces Delta Waves.
Our Instrumental Music includes guitar music, relaxing piano music and flute music. Our instrumental music can be used for relaxation, study, meditation and stress relief. We like to use many different instruments and cultural sounds to add a range of unique music this includes - African Music, Tibetan Music, Asian Music, Indian Music, American Music, South American Music, Spanish Music, European Music, Chinese Music, Arabic Music, Australian Music, Native American Music, Aboriginal Music, African Tribal Music, Eastern European Music
Joe:             The Journey  soundscape took a lot of work. I wanted to bring in the very best of what I knew about brainwave entrainment and to make the best brainwave entrainment product—with the best entrainment technology—that I possibly could. So, there are all sorts of things going on in Journey  to provide a sound bed to support the experience of expansiveness and also communicate elements of the heart-based work I talked about earlier. (See part I of this interview, A Guide to Transpersonal Meditation.)
Over the centuries people have discovered that repetitious rhythms such as the beating of a drum at a single tone, or chanting, or other methods for producing a single, repetitious rhythm, have been known to produce certain states of consciousness whether deep relaxation, trance, a state of meditation and so on. The rhythms used basically changed the brainwave state of the person listening as long as that person remains open and receptive to the rhythms.
... Audio visual stimulation effects people on two levels: Budzynski (2001) reports significant improvement of mental capabilities after AVS in 75-year old male. Cruceanu and Rotarescu (2013) proved that the exposure to 30-minutes of audio-visual stimulation with the frequency of 10,2 Hz significantly improves cognitive skills. Based on their research, authors claim that people need to be exposed to AVS at least for 20 minutes in order to achieve positive effects. ...
I like it. I like the fact that I can just sit there and observe my thoughts and feelings and then go back to watching my breathing. It really does teach me to be centered and balanced. I look forward to the next several weeks. By the way, what I am doing now is meditating for 23 minutes in the early morning and again 23 minutes in the early evening. I’ll check back with you.
To get a full answer you should really get in touch with the owner of the app, because it does really depend on how their track is constructed and how they intend it to work. I have one 50-minute sleep track which takes you down into delta (http://www.mindamend.com/shop/sleeping-and-dreaming/sleep-induction-isochronic-tones/) and that is designed to just get you to sleep, so you just let play until the end. If you played that track on repeat it might make you jump and wake you up, as the track begins at a higher frequency. I have another 8-hour sleep track which is meant to be played all throughout the night (http://www.mindamend.com/shop/sleeping-and-dreaming/deep-sleep-8-hour-sleep-cycle/). So it does depend on the individual track you are using.
The huge problem will all such studies is that there is a clear placebo effect on any kind of mental performance whenever the subject is observed. Do any intervention, then measure performance, and the intervention and measurement are likely to cause an increase in effort and attention which will increase performance. This generic “placebo” effect needs to be factored out of any such study by proper blinding and controls in order for the results to have any meaning at all.
Binaural beats were first discovered in 1839. The effects of using audio instead of light for brainwave entrainment were noted in 1959. Oster’s research paper in 1973 brought attention to the use of binaural beats in a medical setting and this inspired a range of studies in the 1980s indicating very positive findings. The effects of brainwave entrainment using binaural beats has become of a hot topic of research ever since but despite their reported successes, they have never quite shook off the sometimes negative connotations of being an “alternative medicine”.
Transparent Corp's Research Area is arguably the most comprehensive resource for collated brainwave entrainment research.   Update: the main research area on Transparent Corp's website is currently being updated, so it is offline.  However, you can still access their peer-reviewed research paper as a PDF here: “A Comprehensive Review of the Psychological Effects of Brainwave Entrainment“.
Electroencephalography (EEG) has been used in many studies as a primary method for evaluating the meditating brain. Electroencephalography uses electrical leads placed all over the scalp to measure the collective electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. Specifically, EEG measures the electric fields of large groups of neurons. EEG has the benefit of excellent temporal resolution and is able to measure aggregate activity of portions or the entire cortex down to the millisecond scale. Unlike other imaging based methods, EEG does not have good spatial resolution and is more appropriately used to evaluate the running spontaneous activity of the cortex. This spontaneous activity is classified into four main classifications based on the frequency of the activity, ranging from low frequency delta waves (< 4 Hz) commonly found during sleep to beta waves (13–30 Hz) associated with an awake and alert brain. In between these two extremes are theta waves (4–8 Hz) and alpha waves (8–12 Hz).
Maybe a favorite popular song, a certain piece of Classical music, a raucous dance beat, the pulse of Reggae, Indian, or African drums, or the chanting of Gregorian or Tibetan monks, but you probably know how the sound of music, drumming, or chanting is capable of transporting you into an altered and joyous state of mind and uplifting your spirits.

James Austin, a neurologist, began practicing Zen meditation during a visit to Japan. After years of practice, he found himself having to re-evaluate what his professional background had taught him. "It was decided for me by the experiences I had while meditating," said Austin, author of the book "Zen and the Brain" and now a philosophy scholar at the University of Idaho. "Some of them were quickenings, one was a major internal absorption ­ an intense hyper-awareness, empty endless space that was blacker than black and soundless and vacant of any sense of my physical bodily self. I felt deep bliss. I realized that nothing in my training or experience had prepared me to help me understand what was going on in my brain. It was a wake-up call for a neurologist."
Have you ever had a dream where you realized you were dreaming and then suddenly could control the dream? Many of us have had this experience… once or twice. The rest of us have heard about it and wished we could do it ourselves. It’s called lucid dreaming, and it can be an incredibly rewarding experience, especially if you can enter that state at willdo it more than just the rare time or two. But lucid dreaming on a regular basis is something very few of us can do… on our own.
Chant in a monotone, enunciating clearly and moving the mouth in a very pronounced way. (exaggerate the lip movements) Pump the navel point with each part of the mantra. (Pull the navel point toward the spine.) Once I have perfected the above I like to add a slight root lock with the pumping of the navel center, which further stimulates the fire in my spine.

Well, except for one reason: The power of suggestion. If I give you a music track and tell you that it will cure your headache, you're more likely to report that it cured your headache than you are to say "Well it didn't effect my headache, but it made my short-term memory better." An interesting experiment would be to buy a binaural track claimed to induce drunkenness, for example; play it for five friends without telling them the claim, and then ask how it made each of them feel. Give them multiple choices to select from. Chances are they're going to respond all over the map. If you have a friend who is a believer in binaural beats, I suggest going ahead and setting up this little test.
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